• Reduces free radicals formed in the body
  • Promotes blood vessel health
  • *Anti-Inflammatory
  • Helps enhance healthy blood circulation
  • Helps promote healthy joint function
  • Supports healthy cardiovascular system function
  • Support eye health
  • Helps promote skin health
  • Maintain sperm health
  • *Relieve symptoms of sinusitis
  • Helps support healthy cholesterol
  • *Helps decrease symptoms of mild allergies
  • Supports healthy eye function
  • Helps support healthy blood sugar
  • Contains a unique combination of five bioflavonoids, one of which is the most clinically researched pine bark extract, Pycnogenol® †
  • This vegan product contains no added wheat, soy, yeast, gluten, artificial flavour, salt, preservatives or milk
  • Offered with the fastest and most efficient delivery system of all nutraceuticals – Isotonix

* If symptoms persist, seek the advice of a healthcare professional.

† Pycnogenol is the registered trademark of Horphag Research (UK) Ltd.. Pycnogenol is particularly renowned for its extensive clinical research with more than 120 studies published in peer-reviewed medical journals. Pycnogenol has been awarded various patents for its ability to support healthy platelet activity.

Product Classifications:

  Gluten-Free – The finished product contains no detectable gluten (<10ppm gluten)

  Vegan – This product is vegan

  Isotonic-Capable Drinkable Supplements – Easy-to-swallow supplements in liquid form are immediately available to the body for absorption

  Quality Standards – GMP Operations and Standardised Ingredients

  Checked For: Heavy Metals, Microbiological Contaminants, Allergens, Potency, Purity and Identity



A unique combination of five bioflavonoids, one of which is the most clinically researched pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, Isotonix OPC-3 has been clinically studied proving its bioavailability and effectiveness. Many similar products claim Pycnogenol® as an ingredient, but Isotonix OPC-3 has the only isotonic form of Pycnogenol® in the world, adding to its antioxidant capabilities and free radical defense. Grape seed, pine bark and bilberry extracts all act as powerful antioxidants. Studies have shown OPCs to be up to 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more powerful than vitamin E in neutralising free radicals. Only Isotonix offers supplements in an isotonic delivery system, providing maximum nutrient absorption to help you feel your best. Isotonix OPC-3 contains antioxidants that reduces free radicals formed in the body, is an anti-inflammatory, helps decrease symptoms of mild allergies and more.

Why Choose Isotonix OPC-3?

Isotonix OPC-3® is an isotonic-capable dietary supplement that reduces free radicals formed in the body. Employing water-soluble extracts from the most powerful OPCs — bilberry, grape extracts, pine bark extracts, and citrus extract bioflavonoids — Isotonix OPC-3 delivers a powerful antioxidant punch in an effective isotonic solution that is easily absorbed by the body. In addition to reducing free radicals, Isotonix OPC-3 has a multitude of health benefits ranging from demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, sinus relief, decreasing symptoms of mild allergies, cardiovascular health, promote joint health and eye and skin health.

Isotonix OPC-3 contains the only isotonic form of Pycnogenol® in the world. Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree and the most clinically researched and potent bioflavonoid. Grape extracts also superior sources of OPC. Isotonix OPC-3 contains the most bioavailable and potent forms of OPCs. Bilberry, grape seed and pine bark contain bioflavonoids known as anthocyanosides and proanthocyanidins. These antioxidant compounds are known to be 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more powerful than vitamin E in quenching free radicals.

Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are bioflavonoids (complex organic plant compounds) found in fruits, vegetables and certain tree barks that provide exceptional nutritional benefits to the human body. Studies have shown OPCs to be up to 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more powerful than vitamin E in neutralising free radicals. There may be other OPC products on the market but only Isotonix OPC-3 uses the highest quality ingredients with clinical studies to create the most effective and potent product on the market.

Isotonix Delivery System:

Isotonix OPC-3 also contains an unmatched delivery system in isotonic form delivering maximum results. Isotonic, which means “same pressure,” bears the same chemical resemblance of the body’s blood, plasma and tears. All fluids in the body have a certain concentration, referred to as osmotic pressure. The body’s common osmotic pressure, which is isotonic, allows a consistent maintenance of body tissues. In order for a substance to be absorbed and used in the body’s metabolism, it must be transported in an isotonic state. The isotonic state of the suspension allows nutrients to pass directly into the small intestine and be rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. The secret of the isotonic process is probably now becoming clear! Isotonix dietary supplements are delivered in an isotonic solution. This means that the body has less work to do to in obtaining maximum absorption.

With Isotonix products, little nutritive value is lost, making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient while delivering maximum results. An isotonic fluid is nature’s own nutrient delivery system. Isotonix products are also completely free of binders and fillers common in traditional tablet and capsule products so you know that you are getting only quality ingredients you expect. Isotonix OPC-3 delivers quality and results every time. Isotonix OPC-3 has a pleasant, natural flavour and mixes instantly when added to water. It should be taken on an empty stomach for the fastest, most effective delivery of the active ingredients and maximum nutritional benefit.


Grape Extracts (Seed and Skin) (Vitis Vinifera): 375 mg dry seed extract /25 mg active and 12.5g fresh fruit extract /25 mg active Grape extracts are found in grape vines, roots, seeds and stalks, with the highest concentration in the skins. They are powerful antioxidants. Grape seed extract is typically extracted from the seeds of red grapes (instead of white), which have a high content of compounds known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). Grape seed extract is extremely rich in polyphenols, a compound high in antioxidants. These antioxidant properties contribute to maintaining healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins, and maintenance of general well being.

Pine Bark (Pinus pinaster) Extract (Pycnogenol®): 15.0g dry ingredient stem bark/ 25 mg active

Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from the bark of the maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster), which grows exclusively along the coast of southwest France in Les Landes de Gascogne. This unspoiled and natural forest environment is the unique source of pine bark. Pycnogenol is one of the most researched ingredients in the natural product marketplace. Published findings have demonstrated Pycnogenol’s wide array of beneficial effects on the body. Pine bark extract is an all natural combination of procyanidins, bioflavonoids and organic acids.

Pycnogenol is the most clinically researched and potent bioflavonoid. More than 200 scientific studies and clinical trials have confirmed Pycnogenol’s safety, absence of toxicity, and clinical efficacy over the past 35 years, making it one of the most researched ingredients in the natural product marketplace.

The extract has four basic properties – it’s a powerful antioxidant, acts as a natural anti-inflammatory, selectively binds to collagen and elastin, and promotes the normal production of endothelial nitric oxide, which promotes the normal dilation of dilate blood vessels.

As one of the most potent natural scavenger of free radicals, Pycnogenol combats many aggressive free radicals before they cause oxidative stress to vital organs. Its super-antioxidant capabilities help strengthen blood vessel walls and capillaries and supports optimal circulation.

Bilberry Extract (Vaccinium myrtillus): 2.37g dry fruit equivalent / 25 mg active

Bilberry extract is derived from the leaves and berry-like fruit of a common European shrub closely related to the blueberry. Extracts of the ripe berry are known to contain flavonoid pigments known as anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants. Scientific studies confirm a positive effect on vision and venous circulation. Bilberry extract helps maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins.

Citrus Extract (Bioflavonoids): 25 mg dry ingredient and active

Bioflavonoids are found in certain plants where they act as light filters protecting the delicate DNA chains and other important macromolecules by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. They have been found to promote cardiovascular health, help maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins, and demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity.


What is OPC-3®?

OPC-3 is a dietary supplement that bears as active ingredients the most powerful bioflavonoids currently known to research scientists. These bioflavonoids are scientifically termed “oligomeric proanthocyanidins,” commonly abbreviated OPC’s. The purest and best-researched OPCs chosen for OPC-3 are prepared from grape seed, bilberries, Pycnogenol from pine bark and citrus fruit. This combination of potent OPCs is unique to OPC-3, as is the Isotonix delivery system, which enables rapid and highly efficient absorption of the OPCs. Isotonix OPC-3 has been shown to provide a variety of health benefits including but not limited to reducing free radicals, decrease allergies, anti-inflammatory properties, eye health, healthy blood vessels, blood circulation, skin health, and maintaining healthy joints.

What are the directions for use?

Pour 1 (3.3 g) level, white bottle capful of powder into the overcap. Add water to the line on the overcap (60 mL) and stir for one dose. Drink immediately after mixing is complete. As a dietary supplement, take once daily or as directed by your healthcare provider. Maximum absorption occurs when taken on an empty stomach. This product is isotonic only if the specified amounts of water and powder are used.

Why does the label for Isotonix OPC-3 look different than what I’m used to?

Market Australia Isotonix® OPC-3 is the same great formula sold in Australia and the USA, delivering 25 mg per serving of five powerful ingredients, including Pycnogenol® pine bark extract. Due to new TGA labelling requirements, you may notice differences in how ingredients are listed. Rest assured that the quality of the ingredients are still the same.

What are free radicals?

Free radicals are small, highly reactive molecules which can be formed in cigarette smoke, processed, fried or microwaved foods, environmental chemical pollution, radiation, and essentially normal metabolism.

What is a bioflavonoid?

Bioflavonoids are complex organic plant compounds. Plants and fruits differ in colours based on the specific bioflavonoids they contain. An increasing number of clinical studies have shown how bioflavonoids support health.

What sets Isotonix OPC-3 apart from other bioflavonoid products?

Isotonix OPC-3 offers scientifically supported OPCs, found to be the most powerful antioxidants for human health. In addition to being powerful antioxidants, these individual OPCs have been shown to provide a myriad of specific health benefits. This science-driven selection of OPCs is unique to OPC-3, as is the Isotonix delivery system, which enables rapid and highly efficient absorption of the OPCs. The potent nutrients, in combination with the highly effective delivery system, makes OPC-3 the most powerful free radical scavenging product available.

Is Isotonix OPC-3 safe?

Absolutely! OPCs are among the most valuable constituents of a healthy human diet. OPCs have been researched and used for over 30 years throughout Europe. OPC-3 contains pure OPCs in combination with carefully balanced quantities of potassium and fructose/glucose, which set up the isotonic delivery system. OPC-3 is free of harmful chemicals, preservatives, alcohol and pesticides. OPC-3 should be taken as directed.

How long does it take for me to benefit from Isotonix OPC-3?

Many effects of OPC-3 start to work after a single serving. Studies with human volunteers have found that the health benefits of OPCs may take a while to occur. This may be the case for concerns resulting from everyday wear and tear, where time simply has taken its toll. Taking Isotonix OPC-3 daily enables the body to sustain a consistent antioxidant defense.

What is the advantage of taking Isotonix OPC-3 regularly?

Taking Isotonix OPC-3 daily enables the body to sustain a consistent antioxidant defense.

Why should everyone take Isotonix OPC-3?

Everyone is subject to free radical damage and oxidative stress. Free radicals develop as byproducts of physiological processes that occur within the body. This damage does not cause noticeable harm at first, yet may add up over the years. This process is largely responsible for the aging process. Free radicals have been linked directly to premature aging, poor circulation, poor heart health and poor immune health. OPCs are the most powerful natural free radical neutralizers and you get the best of all OPCs by taking Isotonix OPC-3. Regular use every day is vital for keeping free radicals in check and a long, healthy life. Laboratory studies have shown that OPCs are more powerful antioxidants than vitamin C and vitamin E.

Can you take Isotonix OPC-3 in soda, juice, coffee, etc., rather than water?

It is possible but not recommended. This product should only be taken as directed. In order to keep the product in an isotonic form and to achieve the maximum delivery speed, it needs to be taken on an empty stomach with 60mL (2 oz.) of water per capful. Mixing the products with anything else besides other Isotonix and water slows down the delivery time and may also affect the percentage of uptake.

I’m healthy and athletic, why should I take Isotonix OPC-3?

Everyone is vulnerable to the aging process caused by continuous free radical damage. Athletes tend to be exposed to elevated levels of oxidative stress. Free radicals develop as byproducts during metabolism when calories are processed with oxygen. Athletes inhale 10 to 20 times more oxygen during physical activity over rest periods. The increase in activity creates additional free radicals. In fact, these free radicals are known to limit performance, as free radicals appear to take their toll on muscle tissue. Studies on recreational athletes have shown a 20% endurance increase with OPCs, as compared to a control group receiving placebo. Another study has shown that athletes using OPCs suffered significantly less muscle cramping during and after performing. Isotonix OPC-3 helps to maintain healthy blood flow and this supports oxygen supply to muscles.

Can you tell me more about OPC-3 and free radical effects over time?

The damage caused by free radicals adds up with time. A cause for more worry is the fact that your body’s own mechanisms to keep free radicals in check decline with increasing age – when you need them the most. Suddenly, we find ourselves confronted with some typical age-related problems. Some cells of our body are more vulnerable to free radicals than others. OPC-3 has the ability to go in and do a knock-out job, cleaning and scavenging the free radicals that feast on cellular energy, and take it away from vital processes. A typical example is cells of the nervous system. Their membranes are highly vulnerable to free radicals and OPCs have shown to significantly protect nerves. These studies were controlled with groups receiving inactive dummies.

How can OPC-3 help my eyes?

Loss of eyesight is the disability people fear more than all others. Isotonix OPC-3 contains specific OPCs successfully tested for eye health. Pycnogenol has been shown to support healthy capillaries in the eye. Bilberry extract has been shown to inhibit the progression of cataracts and important for promoting eye health. Isotonix OPC-3 helps maintain visual health and supports visual acuity.

What exactly is Pycnogenol?

Pycnogenol is the trademark of Horphag Research (UK) Ltd. For a standardised extract of bark of the French maritime pine tree. Pycnogenol is particularly renowned for its extensive clinical research with more than 120 studies published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The flavonoids in Pycnogenol not only act as powerful antioxidants, they also appear to promote the normal generation of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide promotes the normal relaxation of arteries, supports normal diameter of blood vessels and helps maintain healthy blood pressure and circulation. NO promotes normal platelet activity allowing the blood to maintain a normal, fluid viscosity. Pycnogenol has been awarded various patents for its ability to support healthy platelet activity.

What is the best way to take OPC-3?

Each capful of Isotonix OPC-3 contains 125 milligrams of bioflavonoids, of which 75 milligrams are oligomeric proanthocyanidins in an isotonic-capable base. That means that the OPC-3 active ingredients will be delivered in the highest concentration to the small intestine, where most absorption of nutrients occurs. To start using Isotonix OPC-3 for its benefit as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, take two level capfuls for every 63 kg (150 pounds) of body weight for the first seven days. This is referred to as the saturation dosage. Then, switch to a daily dosage of one capful, per 63 kg (150 pounds) of body weight, as a maintenance dose. For example, if you weigh 86 kg (190 pounds), you would take three servings of Isotonix OPC-3 per day for seven days, and then switch to two servings per day for long-term health maintenance. This product should be taken on an empty stomach for the fastest, most effective delivery of the active ingredient.

When we claim our products are isotonic, is there any formal experiment or report to prove the absorption rate and the isotonic state?

Isotonix products make the label claim of being isotonic capable. When prepared as directed, the solution is within a range of tonicity matching the human body. The basis for the isotonic line is physiologic. Isotonic solutions work via normal body physiology to deliver nutrients quickly as compared to solid forms. These physiologic principles have been well described in medical references and in the medical literature. Here are a few sample references:

  • Ganong, WF Review of Medical Physiology, 13th ed. Norwalk, CT Appleton & Lange, 1987.
  • Graham, DY, Smith, JL, Bouvet AA “What Happens to Tablets in the Stomach” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 79 (5): 420-24, 1990.
  • Hunt, “Mechanisms and Disorders of Gastric Emptying,” Annual Review of Medicine, 1983.
  • Seigel, JA. “Biphasic Nature of Gastric Emptying” Gut 29: 35-39, 1988.
  • Erdman, JW. “Bioavailability of Trace Minerals from Cereal and Legumes”, Cereal Chemistry 58(1), pages? 1981.

I have Type 2 diabetes. Will the Isotonix range increase my sugar level? What products are safe for people with diabetes?

The types of sugars found in Isotonix products were chosen because they do not exhibit a dramatic impact on blood sugar levels when compared to sucrose or table sugar. For example, one serving of Isotonix OPC-3® contains two grams of sugar, and one serving of Isotonix Coenzyme Q10 (available on GLOBAL.SHOP.COM) also contains two grams of sugar, which is equivalent to approximately two grapes. For some individuals, including some diabetics, this amount is not of concern. However, it may be of concern for diabetics, especially if they are on a strict sugar intake. If you are diabetic and concerned about the sugar content, we recommend consulting your physician to determine whether this amount of sugar is appropriate for your use.

If I am taking OPC-3, do I still need to take other antioxidants like Vitamin C?

Taking a variety of antioxidants is important because each antioxidant targets certain types of damaging free radicals — getting a variety will help cover all of your health bases.

If a person is allergic to grapes, can they still take OPC-3?

We would not recommend that individuals with grape allergies use OPC-3 due to the grape seed extracts.

What is the recommended period of stopping OPC-3 before someone is to have an operation?

Isotonix OPC-3® should be discontinued at least 72 hours prior to surgery.

What is the history of OPCs?

In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier was leading an expedition up the St. Lawrence River. Trapped by bad weather, Cartier and his crew were forced to survive on a ration of salted meat and biscuits. Cartier’s crew began to suffer from severe deficiency of vitamin C and showed symptoms of scurvy. Many crew members died before the surviving members encountered a friendly Native American who saved most of their lives. He told them to make a tea from the bark and needles of the pine tree to cure their malady. They complied and, as a result, Cartier and many crewmembers survived.

Some 400 years later, Professor Jacques Masquelier of the University of Bordeaux, France, read a book by Cartier detailing their expedition. He concluded that pine bark not only contained some vitamin C, but obviously was a good source of bioflavonoids, whose effects are similar to those of vitamin C. Further studies and research revealed that the pine bark contained an array of proanthocyanidins complexes. These compounds were also found in a variety of plants, including grape seeds, cranberries, peanut skin, lemon tree bark and citrus rinds. Masquelier termed the active ingredients of the pine bark “pycnogenols”, which today are referred to in the scientific community as oligomeric proanthocyanidins, or OPCs.

OPC Recap:

OPC-3 is a necessity for those interested in seriously protecting their health from the cellular level up. Everyone is subject to free radical damage. OPCs have been researched and widely used in Europe with great success. The benefits of OPC-3 extend into every function in the body and in a country where the diet and lifestyle are mediocre at best, deciding to add an outstanding product like OPC-3 to one’s daily regimen may just add years to one’s life and life to one’s years.


  • Ames, BN, et al. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7915-7922, 1993.

  • Bagchi, D, et al. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed. Ann NY Acad Sci 957:260-70, 2002.

  • Bagchi, D, et al. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148: 187-97, 2000.

  • Bagchi, D, et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 95:179-89, 1997.

  • Bayeta, E., et al. Pycnogenol inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Nutrition Research 20: 249-259, 2000.

  • Blazsó, G., et al. Anti-inflammatory and superoxide radical scavenging activities of a procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. and its fractions. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 3: 217-20, 1994.

  • Cao G, Alessio H, Cultler R. Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assay for antioxidants. Fre Rad Biol & Med 14:301-11, 1993.

  • Cho, K., et al. Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interlukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264. 7. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 168: 64-71, 2000.

  • Cho, K., et al. Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences 928: 141-156, 2001.

  • Devaraj, S., et al. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 37:931-4, 2002.

  • Drew B, Leeuwenburgh C. Aging and the role of reactive nitrogen species. Ann NY Acad Sci 959:66-81, 2002.

  • Fine, AM, Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Altern Med Rev 5:144-51, 2000.

  • Fitzpatrick, D., et al. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 32: 509-515, 1998.

  • Frankel, E., et al. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341: 454-7, 1993.

  • Freedman, J., et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 103:2792-8, 2001.

  • Frémont, L. Biological effects of resveratrol. Life Sciences 66: 663-673, 2000.

  • Gibson, L, et al. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopathic Med 2:45-47, 1991.

  • Graham DY, Smith JL, Bouvet, AA. What happens to tablets in the stomach. J Pharm Sci 79:420-24, 1990.

  • Gulati, O. Pycnogenol ® in venous disorders: a review. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 1-13, 1999.

  • Halpern, MJ, et al. Red wine polyphenols and inhibition of platelet aggregation: possible mechanisms, and potential use in health promotion and disease prevention. J Int Med Res 26:171-80, 1998.

  • Havsteen B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharm 32:1141-48, 1983.

  • Hosseini, S., et al. Pycnogenol ® in the management of asthma. Journal of Medicinal Food 4: 201-209, 2001. HHHh

  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinksi D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, Bickford PC. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neuroscience 19: 8114-21, 1999.

  • Kay CD, Holub BJ. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on post-prandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br J Nutr 88: 389-98, 2002

  • Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 23:21-48, 1993.

  • Koch R. Comparative study of Venostatin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res 16:S1-5, 2002.

  • Kohama, T., et al. Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 49: 828-32, 2004.

  • Kohama, T., et al. The treatment of gynecological disorders with Pycnogenol ® . European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 30-32, 1999.

  • Koparker AD, Augsburger LL, Shangraw RF. Intrinsic dissolution rates of tablet fillers and binders and their influence on the dissolution of drugs from tablet formulations. Pharm Res 7:80-85, 1990.

  • Liu, X., et al. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci 75:2505-13, 2004

  • Liu, X., et al. French maritime pine bark extract pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 27: 839, 2004.

  • Manna, S., et al. Resveratrol suppresses TNF-Induced activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kB, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. The Journal of Immunology 164: 6509-19, 2000.

  • Maritim, A., et al. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:193-9, 2003.

  • Mazza G, Kay CD, Cottrell T, Holub BJ. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 50:7731-37, 2002.

  • Miyagi, Y., et al. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. Am J Cardiol 0:1627-31, 1997.

  • Monograph. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry). Altern Med Rev 6:500-4, 2001.

  • Murias M., et al. Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship. , 2004.

  • Nesaretnam K, et al. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 30:1139-43, 1995.

  • Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther 23: 385-89, 1998.

  • Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, Lis H, Sharon N. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesion activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. New England J Med 324:1599, 1991.

  • Packer, L., et al. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med 27:704-24, 1999. Review.

  • Qureshi, A, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 30:1171-77, 1995.

  • Rimbach G, Virgili F, Park YC, Packer L. Effect of procyanidins from Pinus maritime on glutathione levels in endothelial cells challenged by 3-morpholinosydnonimine or activated macrophages. Redox Rep 4:171-77, 1999.

  • Rohdewald, P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol ® ), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:158-68, 2002. Review.

  • Rohdewald, P. Pycnogenol ® . In “Flavonoids in Health and Disease”. Ed. Catherine Rice-Evans and Lester Packer. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998. 405-19.

  • Roseff, S., et al. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. Journal Reproductive Medicine 47: 821-4, 2002.

  • Roseff, S., et al. Improvement of sperm quality by Pycnogenol ®

  • European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 33-6, 1999.

  • Saito, M., et al. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1460-4, 1998.

  • Schönlau, F., et al. Pycnogenol ® for diabetic retinopathy. International Ophthalmology 24: 161-171, 2002.

  • Schönlau, F., et al. The cosmeceutical Pycnogenol ® . J Appl Cosmetology 20: 241-6, 2002.

  • Segger, D. and Schönlau, F. Supplementation with Evelle ® improves skin smoothness and elasticity in a double blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 women. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 15:222-26, 2004.

  • Sharma, S., et al. Pycnogenol ® inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytotherapy Research 17: 66-69, 2003.

  • Shi, J., et al. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 6:291-9, 2003. Review.

  • Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infactions. J Urology 131:1013-1016, 1984.

  • Soloway MS, Smith RA. J Am Med Assoc 260:1465, 1988.

  • Spadea, L., et al. Treatment of vascular retinopathies with Pycnogenol ® . Phytotherapy Research 15: 219-23, 2001.

  • Stein, J., et al. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 100:1050-5, 1999.

  • Takada, Y., et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-kappaB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 23: 9247-58, 2004.

  • Tomco, A, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienol in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 30: 1179-83, 1995.

  • Ueda, T., et al. Preventative effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the mammalian eye. Ophthalmic Res 28: 184-92, 1996.

  • Wallerath, T., et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 106:1652-8, 2002.

  • Watson, R. Pycnogenol ® and cardiovascular health. Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine 1: 27-32, 2003.

  • Wei, Z., et al. Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defense. Redox Report 3: 219-24, 1997.

  • Yamakoshi, J., et al. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 142:139-149, 1999.

  • Zheng W, Wang SY. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. J Agric Food Chem 51:502-9, 2003.